Basic Knowledge about Vinyl & Vinyl Flooring

Chinese name: 乙烯基
Foreign name: vinyl
Chemical formula: -CH=CH2

Basic information
Simply put, an aqueous solution of a salt undergoes chemical decomposition in the presence of an electric current. This process produces chlorine, caustic soda and hydrogen gas. Refining and cracking oil or gasoline produces ethylene. When chlorine and ethylene are mixed, dichloroethylene is produced; dichloroethylene can in turn be converted to produce chlorinated vinyl, which is the basic building block of polyvinyl chloride. The polymerization process joins the chlorinated vinyl molecules together to form a polyvinyl chloride chain. The polyvinyl chloride produced in this way is in the form of a white powder. It cannot be used alone, but can be mixed with other components to produce many products.
Chlorinated vinyl was first synthesized in 1835 in the laboratory of Justus von Liebig. Polyvinyl chloride was synthesized by Baumann in 1872. However, it was not until the 1920s that the first commercial product of PVC was produced in the United States, and it was only within the next 20 years that large-scale production began in Europe.
With its abundant raw materials (petroleum, limestone, coke, salt, and natural gas), mature manufacturing process, low price, and wide range of applications, PVC is now the second most versatile resin in the world after polyethylene resin, accounting for 29% of the world’s total synthetic resin consumption. PVC is easy to process and can be processed by molding, laminating, injection molding, extrusion, calendering, blow molding hollow, etc. PVC is mainly used to produce soft plastic products such as artificial leather, films, and wire sheathing, and also hard plastic products such as sheets, doors and windows, pipes and valves.
PVC has the advantages of flame retardant (flame retardant value of 40 or more), high chemical resistance (resistant to concentrated hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid with a concentration of 90%, nitric acid with a concentration of 60% and sodium hydroxide with a concentration of 20%), good mechanical strength and electrical insulation. However, its heat resistance is poor, with a softening point of 80°C. It starts to decompose and change color at 130°C, and precipitates HCI.
Derivatives
Epoxy acrylic vinyl resin is a high performance resin. It is a thermosetting liquid resin with excellent mechanical properties of epoxy resin and easy processing and fast curing of unsaturated polyester resin, and its performance in chemical resistance is much better than epoxy resin and general unsaturated polyester resin, moreover, because of its high specific strength and fatigue resistance, epoxy acrylic vinyl ester resin is widely used in corrosion prevention, flooring, fittings, automotive, marine, military, sports equipment and other fields.
①V-118 has the advantages of both epoxy resin and unsaturated polyester resin, but does not have the disadvantages of epoxy resin – high viscosity, not easy to process sex.
The general chemical attack on thermosetting resin is mostly hydrolysis of ester group and oxidation or halogenation of polar or unsaturated group, while V-118 epoxy vinyl ester resin has few ester groups (only at the end) and no polar functional group at the end of the molecule, and the terminal ester group has a three-dimensional barrier provided by methyl group for protection, so the chemical resistance of vinyl resin is naturally better than unsaturated polyester resin.
In addition to the above differences in ester groups and polar groups, the unsaturated groups of vinyl ester resins exist only in the terminal groups, unlike o-phenylene, m-phenylene polyesters and bisphenol A polyesters, which exist in the molecule, the presence of terminal unsaturated bonds provides vinyl resins with a high degree of reactivity, and after curing, the resin has fewer residual unsaturated groups, so it can show better chemical resistance.
④The hydroxyl group of vinyl resin is present in the main chain, and these two hydroxyl groups provide the vinyl resin with fast wetting ability and good adhesion strength.
⑤ In addition, the main structure of bisphenol A provides the vinyl resin with stronger physical properties and excellent heat resistance, while the ether group provides high fatigue resistance.
PVC flooring
PVC flooring refers to flooring made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Specifically, it is produced by taking polyvinyl chloride and its copolymer resin as the main raw material, adding fillers, plasticizers, stabilizers, colorants and other auxiliary materials, on a sheet continuous substrate, by a coating process or by a calendering, extrusion or extrusion process.
(1) from the structure of the points mainly have a composite body type and homogeneous body type 2, and another is a semi-homogeneous body type; the so-called composite PVC floor is to say that it is a multi-layer structure, generally by 4 ~ 5 layer structure laminated, generally have wear-resistant layer (including UV treatment), printing film layer, glass fiber layer, elastic foam layer, grass-roots level, etc.. The so-called homogeneous body PVC floor is to say that it is up and down homogeneous through the heart, that is, from the surface to the end, from top to bottom, are the same kind of flower color.
(2) from the form is divided into coil flooring and sheet flooring 2 kinds; the so-called coil flooring is the texture of the softer volume a volume of flooring, generally its width of 1.5 meters, 1.83 meters, 2 meters, 3 meters, 4 meters, 5 meters, etc., each volume length of 7.5 meters, 15 meters, 20 meters, 25 meters, etc., the total thickness of 1.6mm-3.2mm (only commercial flooring, sports flooring thicker up to 4mm, 5mm, 6mm, etc.). The specifications of sheet flooring are more, mainly divided into strip and square material.
PVC flooring advantages
1、Green environmental protection:The main raw material for the production of PVC flooring is polyvinyl chloride, which is an environmentally friendly and non-toxic renewable resource, and it has long been used in large quantities in people’s daily lives, such as tableware, medical infusion bags, etc. Its environmental protection is not a concern.
2、Ultra-light and ultra-thin:PVC flooring is only 2-3mm thick and weighs only 2-3KG per square meter, which is less than 10% of ordinary ground materials. In the high-rise building for the building load-bearing and space saving, has incomparable advantages. At the same time, it has special advantages in the transformation of old buildings.
3、Super wear-resistant:PVC flooring surface has a special layer of transparent wear-resistant layer processed by high technology, and its wear-resistant rpm can reach 300000 rpm. Therefore, PVC flooring is more and more popular in hospitals, schools, office buildings, shopping malls, supermarkets, transportation and other places where the flow of people is high.
4、High elasticity and super impact resistance:PVC flooring is soft so it has good elasticity, good elastic recovery under the impact of heavy objects, coil flooring has soft texture and better elasticity, and its comfortable footing is called “flooring soft gold”, while PVC flooring has strong impact resistance, and has strong elastic recovery for heavy impact damage, which will not cause damage. Excellent PVC flooring can minimize the damage of the ground to the human body, and can disperse the impact on the foot.
5, super anti-slip:PVC flooring surface wear layer has a special anti-slip, and compared with ordinary ground materials, PVC flooring in the case of sticky water feet feel more astringent, less likely to slip. Also therefore, so in public places with high public safety requirements such as airports, hospitals, kindergartens, schools, etc. is the preferred ground decoration material.
6, fire retardant: the quality of qualified PVC flooring fire indicators up to B1, B1 level that is to say, fire performance is very good, second only to stone. pvc flooring itself will not burn and can prevent burning; high quality pvc flooring in the passive ignition of the smoke generated by absolutely no harm to humans, will not produce breathable toxic and harmful gases (according to the figures provided by the security sector: in 95% of people injured in the fire is due to the toxic smoke and gas produced when burning).
7, antibacterial, waterproof, moisture, acid and alkali corrosion resistance: PVC flooring because the main component is vinyl resin, and no affinity for water, so its natural not afraid of water, as long as not long-term immersion will not be damaged; and will not occur because of high humidity and mold.
8、Sound absorption and noise prevention:PVC flooring has a sound absorption effect that cannot be compared with ordinary ground materials, and its sound absorption can reach 20 decibels, so in the need for a quiet environment such as hospital wards, school libraries, lecture halls, theaters, etc. choose PVC flooring.
9、Small seams and seamless welding:PVC coil flooring with seamless welding technology can reach completely seamless, which is impossible to do with ordinary flooring, and therefore the overall effect of the ground and the visual effect can be optimized to the maximum; in the environment with high requirements for the overall effect of the ground, such as offices, and the environment with high requirements for sterilization and disinfection, such as hospital operating rooms, PVC flooring is the most ideal choice.
10、Quick installation and construction:PVC flooring installation and construction is very quick, without cement mortar, the ground conditions are good with special environmental protection floor glue bonding, 24 hours later you can use.
11、Variety of colors:PVC flooring has a wide variety of colors, such as carpet pattern, stone pattern, wood floor pattern, etc., and even personalized customization can be achieved. The pattern is realistic and beautiful, with colorful attached materials and decorative strips, can be combined with a beautiful decorative effect.
12, thermal conductivity and warmth: PVC flooring has good thermal conductivity, uniform heat dissipation, and small coefficient of thermal expansion, relatively stable. In Europe and the United States and Japan and South Korea and other countries and regions, PVC flooring is the product of choice for floor heating thermal conductive flooring, ideal for home paving, especially in the cold areas of northern China.
13, maintenance is convenient:PVC floor maintenance is very convenient, the ground is dirty with a mop wipe can. If you want to keep the floor lasting bright effect, only regular waxing maintenance can be, its maintenance times are far lower than other floors.
Polyethylene disadvantages
1、High construction foundation requirements 2、Fear of cigarette burns 3、Non-natural materials 4. Fear of sharp objects scratching
Disadvantages of homogeneous permeable PVC flooring
1、Poor stain resistance, must often waxing maintenance
2、Contains more stone powder, no PVC wear layer on the surface, so the wear resistance is poor
3、Fear of cigarette burns
4、The texture is hard, the foot feeling is not as soft as composite PVC flooring
5、Compared with the colorful printing layer of composite PVC flooring, the color is relatively single, not enough diversity
The disadvantages of multi-layer composite PVC flooring
1、Does not have repairability, which is not as good as through-heart products
2、The same fear of cigarette burns
3、Fear of heavy roller crushing, easy to dent the situation
Polyethylene construction process
First. Flooring testing
1、Use temperature and humidity meter to detect temperature and humidity, indoor temperature and surface temperature should be 15℃, and construction should not be below 5℃ and above 30℃. The relative air humidity suitable for construction should be between 20%-75%.
2、Use moisture content tester to test the moisture content of the grass-roots level, the moisture content of the grass-roots level should be less than 3%.
3、The strength of the grass-roots level should not be lower than the requirement of concrete strength C-20, otherwise, suitable self-leveling should be used to strengthen the strength.
4、The test result with hardness tester should be that the surface hardness of the grass-roots level is not less than 1.2 MPa.
5、For the construction of PVC flooring material, the unevenness of the grass-roots level should be less than 2mm in height difference within 2m straightedge, otherwise, suitable self-leveling should be used for leveling.
Second, the flooring pretreatment
1、Use more than 1000 watts of flooring sanding machine with appropriate grinding pad to sand the whole flooring, remove the paint, glue and other residues, the raised and loose ground, and the ground with empty drum must also be removed.
2、Use an industrial vacuum cleaner of not less than 2000 watts to vacuum and clean the flooring.
3、For cracks on the flooring, stainless steel reinforcement as well as polyurethane waterproof type adhesive surface laying quartz sand can be used to repair.
Three, self-leveling construction – priming
1、Absorbent grass-roots leveling layer such as concrete and cement mortar should be closed and primed by using multi-purpose interface treatment agent diluted with water at a ratio of 1:1.
2, non-absorbent grass-roots level such as tile, terrazzo, marble, etc., it is recommended to use the dense interface treatment agent for priming.
3, such as grass-roots water content is too high (> 3%) and need to immediately construction, you can use epoxy interface treatment agent for priming, but the premise is that the moisture content of the grass-roots level should not be greater than 8%.
4、The construction of the interface treatment agent should be even, no obvious accumulation of liquid. After the surface of the interface treatment agent is air-dried, the next step of self-leveling construction can be carried out.
Four, self-leveling construction – mixing
1、Pour a pack of self-leveling into the mixing bucket with water according to the specified water-cement ratio, and mix while pouring.
2、To ensure even mixing of self-leveling, use a high-power, low-speed electric drill with special mixer for mixing.
3、Stir until there is no lump of uniform slurry, leave it to ripen for about 3 minutes, then stir it again briefly.
4、The amount of water added should be strictly in accordance with the water-cement ratio (please refer to the corresponding self-leveling instructions). Too little water will affect the fluidity. Too much will reduce the strength after curing.
Five, Self-levelling construction – laying
1、Pour the mixed self-leveling slurry on the construction floor, it will flow and level the ground by itself, if the design thickness is ≤ mm, it should be slightly scraped with the help of special tooth scraper.
2、After that, you should let the construction personnel put on the special spike shoes and enter the construction ground, and use the special self-leveling deflating roller to gently roll on the self-leveling surface to release the air mixed in the mixing to avoid the bubble pockmark and interface height difference.
3、Please close the site immediately after the construction is completed, prohibit walking within 5 hours, avoid heavy impact within 10 hours, 24 hours after the laying of PVC flooring.
4、Winter construction, the laying of flooring should be carried out 48 hours after the construction of self-leveling.
5、If you need to fine polish the self-leveling, it is appropriate to carry out after 12 hours of self-leveling construction.
Six, the floor paving – pre-paving and cutting
1、Either coil or block, should be placed on the site for more than 24 hours, so that the material memory restoration, temperature and construction site consistent.
2、Use the special trimmer to cut and clean the raw edge of the coil.
3, block laying, two pieces of material should be tightly and no joints between.
4, coil laying, the lap of two pieces of material should be cut using overlap, generally is required to overlap 3 cm. Note to maintain a cut.
Seven, the floor pavement – paste
1、Select the corresponding glue and scraping board suitable for PVC flooring.
2、When the coil is paved, one end of the coil is rolled and folded up. First clean the floor and the back of the coil, and then scrape glue on top of the floor.
3, block paving, please turn up the block from the middle to both sides, the same will be the ground and the back of the floor clean after gluing sticky.
4, different laminating agent in the construction requirements will be different, please refer to the corresponding product instructions for construction.
Eight, the floor paving-exhaust, rolling
1、After the floor is pasted, first use the cork block to push the surface of the floor to level and squeeze out the air.
2, followed by 50 or 75 kg of steel pressure roller evenly rolled floor and timely trim the splice warped edge of the situation.
3、The excess glue on the surface of the floor should be wiped away in time.
4、After 24 hours, then slotting and welding seam.
Nine, the floor paving-slotting
1、Grooving must be carried out after the glue is completely cured. Use the special slotter to slot along the seam, in order to make the welding firm, the slotting should not be through the bottom, and it is recommended that the slotting depth is 2/3 of the floor thickness.
2、In the end part where the groover cannot groove, please use manual groover to groove the seam with the same depth and width.
3、Before welding seam, must remove the residual dust and debris in the slot.
Ten, the floor pavement – welding seam
1、Manual welding gun or automatic welding equipment can be used to weld the seam.
2、The temperature of the welding gun should be set at about 350 degrees.
3、With proper welding speed (to ensure the welding rod melts), squeeze the welding rod into the open slot at an even speed.
4、When the welding rod is half-cooled, use the welding rod trimmer or moon cutter to cut the part of the welding rod above the floor plane roughly.
5、When the welding rod is completely cooled, the remaining raised part of the welding rod will be cut off by using the welding rod leveler or the moon type cutter.
Eleven, the floor cleaning, maintenance
1、PVC series flooring is developed and designed for indoor places, and it is not suitable to be laid and used in outdoor sites.
2、Please choose the corresponding cleaning agent for regular cleaning and maintenance according to the method recommended by the factory.
3, should avoid toluene, banana water and other high concentration of solvents and strong acid, strong alkali solution poured on the surface of the floor, should avoid using inappropriate tools and sharp scraping shovel or damage to the surface of the floor.

Twelve, Related tools
1、Flooring treatment:Surface humidity tester, surface hardness tester, floor polisher, high-power industrial vacuum cleaner, wool roller, self-leveling mixer, 30-liter self-leveling mixing bucket, self-leveling tooth scraper, nail shoes, self-leveling deflator.
2、Floor laying: floor trimmer, cutter, two-meter steel ruler, glue scraper, steel pressure roller, grooving machine, welding gun, moon type cutter, welding rod trimmer, combination scriber.
The difference between vinyl flooring and conventional flooring
Polyethylene flooring and carpet
◆Composition and production process is different: carpet is made of cotton, hemp, wool, silk, grass and other natural fibers or chemical synthetic fiber raw materials, by hand or mechanical process for knitting, pile or textile ground pavement.
◆ Performance and maintenance differences: carpets belong to flammable goods, fear of fire, water, moisture, and maintenance is very troublesome, very easy to dirty, easy to hide dirt, breeding bacteria. And PVC flooring fire retardant, not afraid of water, not afraid of moisture, care is very simple, wipe with a rag can be, good stain resistance, with antibacterial effect.
Polyethylene flooring and tile
◆Composition and production process is different: the so-called tiles, is a refractory metal oxides and semi-metallic oxides, through the process of grinding, mixing, pressing, glazing, sintering, and the formation of an acid and alkali-resistant porcelain or stone, such as construction or decorative materials, always called tiles. Its raw materials are mostly mixed with clay, quartz sand, etc.
There are differences in performance and maintenance: tiles are not non-slip and have a cold texture, and they are troublesome to maintain and are easily dirty.
◆ Installation differences: tiles are heavy, installation is more laborious, and it is difficult to move after installation, not reusable. And PVC flooring is light, very simple to install, and can be directly paved on the original ground without compressing the space, so it is very suitable in the renovation of old buildings.
Polyethylene flooring and marble
◆Stone is very heavy, bring a lot of burden to the transportation and construction, especially the main structure of the high-rise building will cause great harm to the role.
◆Stone is slippery in water, cold in texture, and marble is radioactive, granite contains radon gas and other harmful to human body.
◆Marble is expensive, but the laying effect is very upscale, suitable for high-grade places.
Polyethylene flooring and wood flooring
Wooden flooring can be roughly divided into three categories: solid wood flooring, solid wood laminate flooring and laminate wood flooring.
◆ Solid wood flooring is a natural material, with the irreplaceable advantages of synthetic materials, non-toxic and tasteless, comfortable feet, warm in winter and cool in summer. However, it also has the shortcomings of expensive price, large consumption of hardwood resources, large workload of laying and installation, not easy to maintain (fear of fire, fear of water, fear of moisture) and large dimensional changes in the direction of the width of the floor with the change of relative humidity.
◆The appearance of solid wood composite flooring has the same beautiful wood texture as solid wood flooring, good dimensional stability, easy to lay and maintain. However, it is still unable to get rid of the shortcomings of fear of fire, water and moisture, and is not as environmentally friendly as PVC flooring and less wear-resistant than PVC flooring.
◆ The substrate of laminate flooring is MDF or HDF and particle board, good dimensional stability, the surface layer is impregnated decorative paper containing wear-resistant materials, which ensures the wear resistance of the surface layer can resist cigarette burns, scratch resistance and good pollution resistance, which is relative to the first two, and PVC flooring superb wear resistance and stain resistance than there is still a considerable gap.
Polyethylene flooring and bamboo flooring
◆Bamboo flooring is also made of natural bamboo wood processing, green and environmental protection. But bamboo flooring also belongs to the fear of water, fire, moisture, sensitive to indoor temperature and humidity, easy to expand deformation or dry shrinkage and cracking, serious and even moldy.
◆The surface of bamboo flooring is painted surface, with poor wear resistance and poor scratch resistance.
◆The maintenance of bamboo flooring is troublesome and requires frequent waxing and maintenance, in addition, the corrosion resistance is poor.
Polyethylene flooring and linen flooring
Linen flooring is a kind of resilient flooring material, which is composed of: linseed oil, limestone, cork, wood flour, natural resin, jute. Natural environmental protection is the most outstanding feature of linen flooring, with good resistance to cigarette butt performance. Linen is currently dominated by coil, a single homogeneous translucent structure.
Polyethylene advantages
1、Natural material production
2、Safe and reliable, non-slip
3、Resilient
4, light weight
5, colorful, in line with individual design requirements
Polyethylene defects
1、Construction requires high foundation
2、Floor has smell
3、Poor stain resistance
4、Influenced by temperature, poor dimensional stability
5、The surface is easy to wear
6、Flooring cost is high
7、Fear of cigarette burns
8、The problem of color difference cannot be solved
Polyethylene elasticity comparison:
PVC flooring and linen flooring belong to the same resilient flooring, but there are differences:
◆Composition and production process is different: Linen flooring is a mixture of oxidized linseed oil, cork and wood flour, laminated to jute backing processed on top. The PVC flooring is made of PVC and its copolymer resin as the main raw material, adding fillers, plasticizers, stabilizers, colorants and other auxiliary materials, on a continuous sheet substrate, produced by the coating process or by calendering, extrusion or extrusion process. From this point of view flax is used pure natural flax raw materials, and PVC flooring is used polyvinyl chloride materials, but also green materials.
There are differences in wear resistance and stability: the general scratch resistance of linen flooring, linen flooring on the hard and soft, which is why the thick linen flooring scratch resistance performance is not very good, compared to the wear resistance of PVC flooring better. In addition, the general dimensional stability of linen flooring, therefore, must use a very strong glue, from the overall, linen flooring stability is not as good as PVC flooring.
◆The difficulty of maintenance is different: linen flooring needs to be maintained in natural light, samples and the real thing will be different, yellowing, linen flooring for maintenance products (PH>7) resistance is poor, linen flooring in the need to re-polish, waxing must be used when special maintenance products. Linoleum flooring is much harder than PVC flooring, but because the surface is porous, so all the stains must be quickly cleaned up, otherwise the surface will leave a difficult to remove the marks and have to be refinished and waxed. Because it is not a thermoplastic material, it cannot be recycled. The scalded marks can be easily rubbed off, but for deeper scalding marks, the translucent PVC flooring is much easier to polish than the linen flooring.
◆Difference in the degree of difficulty of installation:It is more difficult to install linen flooring, and if the room temperature is too low, the linen flooring will fracture. Because of its absorbent nature and dimensional instability, the product must be installed quickly with strong glue. Let’s say one day, an installation team can lay 80 to 100m2 of PVC flooring, that or may only be able to lay 60m2 of linen flooring. Linen oil is not sensitive to temperature, can not be welded with the same material welding rod, so it is not welding but “seam”, so the linen floor can not be classified as E3 waterproof category, linen flooring is not suitable for wet rooms or areas with clean requirements. Linoleum flooring can give off a strong odor that stays in the room where it is installed.
Polyethylene installation process
A. The requirements of the grass-roots level for linen flooring
Linoleum flooring construction quality and the construction quality of the grass-roots level has a great relationship. Its requirements for the grass-roots level can be summarized as: flat, dry, clean, slippery four points.
1, flat: that flat, with 2m straightedge check, its surface concavity should not be greater than 2mm. if the grass-roots level is not flat, easy to make the surface layer paste into wavy, warped, hollow drum. In addition, there are impurities in the adhesive small particles, will also make the surface layer local arching, resulting in the indication of uneven.
2, dry: that indicate dry. When paving grass-roots residual water (moisture content) should not be greater than 3% cm. when the grass-roots moisture content greater than 3% when paving the elastic flooring surface layer is easy to hollow drum, this is because the water smothered in the grass-roots level, later gradually accumulate, when a certain degree, the weak part in the surface layer will arch, in essence, is not firmly bonded and delaminated, thus causing the surface layer hollow drum. Therefore, the grass-roots level paved with cement mix, after the end of construction according to the provisions of maintenance, and should strengthen the ventilation and drying. The first layer should be set up isolation layer for moisture control, ordinary concrete floor can not meet its moisture requirements, should be added to the concrete bedding layer of a layer of moisture-proof layer, commonly used to have a coil, asphalt and other air-insulating materials for the underground movement of pressure water through capillary pores and siphoning effect caused by excessive moisture on the base.
3, clean:That indicates that should be clean. As the grass-roots construction date and elastic flooring surface layer of paving is always a period of time, inevitably in the middle on people stepping on, or other items stacked, scattered. Therefore surface paving before, should be carefully processed (can not be flushed with water), such as grease and other impurities, the application of fire or alkaline water scrubbing, so as not to cause paste effect.
4, slip: that is, the grass-roots surface should be hard, smooth, should not be rough, sand. The bonding force of the smooth surface of the grass-roots level is greater than the rough bonding force. This is because the rough surface forms many fine pores, when scraping adhesive, not only increase the amount of adhesive, and the thickness is not uniform. After pasting, due to the fine pores within the adhesive more, which dispersion of gas continues to emit, when the accumulation to a certain extent, it will be in the paste of the weak parts of the formation of the plate surface drum or edge warping phenomenon.
Laying flax flooring grass-roots requirements:
Surface flatness:2mm/2m
Cement mortar surface strength: greater than or equal to M15
Cement mortar surface hardness: greater than or equal to 1.2MPA
Moisture content of the substrate: greater than or equal to 3% CM
The surface should be clean and free of cracks, peeling, pockmarking, sanding and other defects.
Second, self-leveling cement construction process
1、 Base layer treatment
Basic requirements:
Before the construction of self-leveling cement, the ground surface should be flat, dry, solid, free of dust and dirt, etc.
Construction steps and points:
First, use a special shovel to remove the original plaster, paint, cement hard blocks and other protrusions on the ground, and then use a grinder to grind the whole ground once to ensure that there is no protrusion and loose ground surface; then the leveled ground will be dried naturally or heated to dry quickly, so that the moisture content of the whole ground does not exceed 6%; then use a broom to clean the ground and all the corners; then use a grinder to grind the local high places again Fine grinding, so that the difference between the thickness of the ground and the ground next to it does not exceed 2.0mm.
2、 On the interface agent (primer)
The purpose of the primer is to ensure that the surface of the grassroots and self-leveling cement closely bonded, and a certain degree of moisture-proof function. According to the requirements of different manufacturers, some water can be added to the primer, the proportion of water can be added according to the manufacturer’s recommendations to carry out, after adding water must be fully stirred, and then use a roller that does not lose hair to apply the primer in accordance with the amount of use provided by the manufacturer evenly on the surface, especially dry ground can be divided into two to paint the primer, the amount of use and a brush the same, the interval according to the discoloration of the primer to Determine, wait for the primer to dry completely before the construction of self-leveling cement.
3、 Mixing
Before mixing the preparation work must be done adequately, a group of builders had better spare more than one bucket, three of which are used for mixing, one for measuring water, one for holding water, the bucket for measuring water must be accurate, the self-leveling water ratio of each manufacturer is not the same, please strictly in accordance with the water ratio provided by the manufacturer’s recommendations, the mixer must choose a high power mixer, the power is better than 1000 watts, and It is possible to adjust the speed, at first you can put it on medium speed, because it needs a large centrifugal force when mixing at first, after the cement is completely integrated into the water, you can put it on medium speed and mix for 2-3 minutes, the mixing head is best to use WOLFF self-leveling mixing head, because the mixing head not only has rotational force, but also has shearing force, which can fully mix the self-leveling cement, and there will be no self-leveling cement blocks left on the barrel wall. After mixing 4-6 barrels, the mixing bucket and mixing head should be cleaned to prevent the self-leveling from condensing into blocks on the barrel wall and mixing head after a long time.
4、 Leveling and defoaming
Self-levelling construction must be carried out continuously, and any cross-construction is prohibited within 24 hours, after the mixing of self-levelling cement is completed, it should be poured into the construction site as soon as possible, if you do self-levelling of 2mm thickness, you can use a self-levelling rake to scrape, because the rake can evenly control the construction thickness of self-levelling; if you want to do self-levelling of more than 3mm, you can use a large self-levelling spatula to do it, self-levelling scraping on the ground After that, it should be deflated with defoaming roll as soon as possible, scraping and defoaming construction personnel must wear nail shoes, the construction of self-leveling is to retreat backward while construction, pay attention to the height drop between each barrel of self-leveling cement.
5、 Fine sanding at the amount
Perfect and flawless self-leveling construction can not be separated from the sanding machine, self-leveling construction is completed, self-leveling surface may also have small porosity, particles and floating dust, doorway and corridor may also have a high difference, these cases are required to do further fine leveling sanding machine, sanding machine plowing coarse and fine grinding to save the entire project materials are very helpful, coarse grinding can reduce the use of self-leveling, fine grinding can reduce the amount of The amount of glue used in the later project.
Three, flax flooring installation process and requirements
Floor laying welding seam program one: heat welding
1, substrate treatment: a “flat”, two “grinding”, three “dry”, four “sweep”, five “suction”.
2、Measurement and cutting: through the combination of observation of the drawings and fieldwork, the principle of reducing waste, comprehensive consideration of aesthetics, proper placement of welding lines and the layout of the applique, the final determination of the size of the cut, to maximize economic benefits.
3、 Pre-paving, gluing and seam processing:Linoleum flooring is evenly and firmly fixed on the ground, and the lap part of the floor is processed to slightly leave a gap in the splicing process.
4, slotting and welding: welding seam should be straight, smooth, no cracks, no scorch spot, no broken welding, and the whole floor in color, feel as one.
5、 The initial shovel and fine shovel of welding line.
Floor laying weld program two: cold welding
1、 Layer processing: “flat”, two “grinding”, three “dry”, four “sweep”, five “suction”.
2、Measurement and cutting: Through the combination of observation of the drawings and fieldwork, the principle of reducing waste, comprehensive consideration of the degree of beauty, proper placement of welding lines and the layout of the applique, and finally determine the size of the cut, to maximize economic benefits.
3、 Pre-paving, gluing and seam processing:Linoleum flooring is evenly and firmly fixed on the ground, and the lap part of the floor is processed into a slightly left seam splicing treatment.
4、 Cold welding interface:The seam is closed with cold welding agent by using the producer and the effect is as beautiful as heat welding.
Polyethylene edit this section rubber flooring
Rubber flooring is the floor made of natural rubber, synthetic rubber and other components of polymer materials. Natural rubber is the rubber tapped from artificially cultivated rubber trees. Butyl, high benzene and paraben rubber are synthetic rubber, which is an accessory product of petroleum. Rubber as the main raw material production is divided into homogeneous and non-homogeneous relief surface, smooth surface indoor with rubber flooring. Homogeneous rubber flooring refers to the flooring based on natural rubber or synthetic rubber, single-layer or multi-layer structure vulcanized with the same color and composition; non-homogeneous rubber flooring: refers to the flooring based on natural rubber or synthetic rubber, the structure includes a wear-resistant layer and other compaction layers of different composition and (or) design, the compaction layer contains a skeleton layer.
Rubber flooring is generally used in high-end places or places with high requirements for wear resistance, and the market is not too big due to high prices. At present, it is still mainly used in the transportation field in China, such as subways, airplanes, cars and other means of transportation, airports, stations and other transportation hubs.

Polyethylene advantages
1、Production of natural rubber
2、Safe and reliable, anti-slip
3、Soft and comfortable, elastic
4、Light weight
Polyethylene defects
1、Construction requires high foundation
2、Floor has rubber smell
3、The color is monotonous
4、Influenced by temperature, poor dimensional stability
5、The surface is easy to wear
6、Flooring cost is high
Polyethylene PVC and rubber
PVC flooring and rubber flooring belong to the same resilient flooring, but there are differences:
◆Different composition and production process: rubber flooring is divided into homogeneous and non-homogeneous. Homogeneous rubber flooring refers to the flooring based on natural rubber or synthetic rubber, single-layer or multi-layer structure vulcanized with the same color and composition; non-homogeneous rubber flooring refers to the flooring based on natural rubber or synthetic rubber, the structure includes a wear-resistant layer and other compaction layers of different composition and (or) design, the compaction layer contains a skeleton layer.
◆Difference in color: rubber flooring coloring is more difficult because rubber has strong color absorption, so most rubber flooring has a single color; and PVC flooring has very many colors, which can be combined at will and can give designers more choices.
◆Difference in the degree of difficulty of installation: PVC flooring is lighter, easy and fast to install; rubber flooring is very heavy, more laborious to install. And the installation method of rubber flooring is more strictly required, if the method is not right, bubbles will appear, and the requirement of self-leveling foundation is more perfect, otherwise it will exaggerate the defects of the base.
◆Market demand and wear resistance strength have differences: rubber flooring because of the high price, only in some high-end places to use, the scope is more narrow; and PVC flooring because of its super high cost performance therefore very widely used, the market potential is huge. In addition, the rubber flooring is more wear-resistant, and it is very suitable for the places with a large flow of people such as airports and stations, as well as airplanes, trains, subways, cars, ships and other means of transportation.
Polyethylene flooring laying
The foundation preparation requirements before laying
1、Humidity:According to the glue manufacturer’s opinion, the moisture content of the foundation (weight percentage) should be less than 3%, in case of weather reasons or foreign moisture, should make air circulation, and timely wipe off the surface moisture. Construction site air humidity should be maintained at 20%-75%.
2、Surface hardness: use a sharp chisel to quickly cross-cut the surface, the cross should not be burst.
3、Surface flatness: use 2m straightedge to check, the gap should be no more than 2mm.
4、Surface compactness: the surface shall not be too rough and shall not have too much porosity. The surface hardening treatment should be made for the slight sandy ground.
5、Cracks: there shall be no cracks greater than 3mm in width. The surface shall not be empty drum.
6, surface cleanliness: oil, wax, paint, pigments and other residual substances must be removed.
7, temperature: laying site temperature to 15oC is appropriate.
8、In addition:The horizontal benchmark should be maintained. The building settlement joints should have a suitable seal.
9、Advice:According to the leveling layer thickness and rubber flooring laying time plan, the time of leveling layer construction and laying rubber flooring should be not less than 28 days to ensure the strength and flooring dry.
In order to ensure the effect of large area laying (flatness, strength), it is recommended to be sure to use primer and self-leveling on the levelling layer before laying, especially for the renovation of old buildings. For details, please consult the manufacturer, who will recommend products and practices according to the ground conditions.
To ensure that the paved site has sufficient strength to support the structure of the layers on it and to withstand the high load in future use, it is recommended that the leveling layer should be of high grade, such as fine stone concrete practice, the recommended grade is C30. cement mortar level should be strictly in accordance with the national standard ≥ M15 strength standard. The above is an example of cement flooring, other flooring will be discussed separately.
Rubber flooring materials and auxiliary materials should be placed overhead in a safe and reliable room, and kept ventilated and dry to avoid light, not stacked. The coils should be kept upright and the rubber parts should be placed free of pressure, and the indoor temperature should be 15oC.
Rubber flooring construction program
The laying construction should be carried out by experienced professional construction team or construction team trained by Freudenberg Building Systems, in strict accordance with the requirements of “rubber flooring laying process” and using professional imported laying equipment and tools.
Brief description of the process:
1、Construction of primer oil Soak the primer oil with sponge roll, cross the flooring surface in order horizontally and vertically once without missing, evenly coated, so that there is no water on the flooring surface, then close the site, 1-2 hours after the self-leveling construction. If the flooring has strong water absorption, it can be done once more to ensure the sealing effect.
2、Construction of self-leveling According to the manufacturer’s instruction, pour the quantitative cold water into the barrel (must be clean water), then pour the self-leveling cement into the barrel while stirring for 2-3 minutes, and stir until there are no lumps. Use the self-leveling scraper to scrape the self-leveling cement poured on the ground in order until it is even, then close the site, no walking for 12 hours, and only after 24 hours can work.
3、The operation of deflating At the same time of self-leveling operation, another person should do the operation of deflating and deflating back and forth in the self-leveling cement to make it more smooth, even and without air holes.
4、The construction of laying The rubber flooring should be moved to the construction site in advance, adapt to the site temperature not less than 24 hours, laying should be first raw row, and pay attention to keep the direction of the arrow on the back of the floor consistent, and then make splicing and cutting according to the terrain and design scheme.
5、Scraping glue and paste construction Turn up the floor in order, clean the site, scraping glue usually use the method of ground scraping glue, choose suitable glue and prescribed scraping teeth for the material, scraping evenly on the ground in order, depending on the drying time appropriate before pasting. Paste should be pushed lightly in order, discharge the air at the bottom of the floor, use 50KG iron pressure roller in order to roll pressure without omission, and timely trim flip, warped corner, away from the seam and other phenomena.
6、Other After laying, excess glue should be removed in time, and then do the construction of auxiliary parts, such as welding seams, skirting, etc.
7、Operating method For the larger area should be used in the way of flowing operation, planned and sequential flowing operation, clear professional division of labor, clear responsibility, facilitate management and ensure quality.
8、Cleaning Before the construction is finished and put into use, the product protection wax on the surface of rubber flooring should be done to remove wax and clean before use.
9, laying quality acceptance requirements are as follows: flat, no damage to the surface, seam flush, seam line horizontal and vertical, no gaps, no flaps, no warped corners, no bubbles, along the edge of the wall match, on the wall arc straight, pad corner line without holes, skirting line height consistent flush, firm, no leakage of glue, degumming phenomenon, welded seam flush and firm, to ensure the final result of rubber flooring, construction should be avoided as far as possible and other work cross Construction, should be arranged in the final stage of the interior construction.
10、Installation and construction is fast:PVC flooring installation and construction is very fast, without cement mortar, the ground condition is good with special environmental protection flooring adhesive bonding, 24 hours later you can use.
11、Variety of colors:PVC flooring has a wide variety of colors, such as carpet pattern, stone pattern, wood floor pattern, etc., and even personalized customization can be achieved. The pattern is realistic and beautiful, with colorful attached materials and decorative strips, can be combined with a beautiful decorative effect.
12, thermal conductivity and warmth: PVC flooring has good thermal conductivity, uniform heat dissipation, and small coefficient of thermal expansion, relatively stable. In Europe and the United States and Japan and South Korea and other countries and regions, PVC flooring is the product of choice for floor heating thermal conductive flooring, ideal for home paving, especially in the cold areas of northern China.
13, maintenance is convenient:PVC floor maintenance is very convenient, the ground is dirty with a mop wipe can. If you want to keep the floor lasting bright effect, only regular waxing maintenance can be, its maintenance times are far lower than other floors.
Disadvantages of homogeneous permeable PVC flooring
1、Poor stain resistance, must often waxing maintenance
2、Contains more stone powder, no PVC wear layer on the surface, so the wear resistance is poor
3、Fear of cigarette burns
4、The texture is hard, the foot feeling is not as soft as composite PVC flooring
5、Compared with the colorful printing layer of composite PVC flooring, the color is relatively single, not enough diversity
The disadvantages of multi-layer composite PVC flooring
1、Does not have repairability, which is not as good as through-heart products
2、The same fear of cigarette burns
3、Fear of heavy roller crushing, easy to dent the situation
Polyethylene construction process
I. Flooring testing
1、Use temperature and humidity meter to detect temperature and humidity, indoor temperature and surface temperature should be 15℃, and construction should not be below 5℃ and above 30℃. The relative air humidity suitable for construction should be between 20%-75%.
2、Use moisture content tester to test the moisture content of the grass-roots level, the moisture content of the grass-roots level should be less than 3%.
3、The strength of the grass-roots level should not be lower than the requirement of concrete strength C-20, otherwise, suitable self-leveling should be used to strengthen the strength.
4、The test result with hardness tester should be that the surface hardness of the grass-roots level is not less than 1.2 MPa.
5、For the construction of PVC flooring material, the unevenness of the grass-roots level should be less than 2mm in height difference within 2m straightedge, otherwise, suitable self-leveling should be used for leveling.

In the current process conditions in order to improve the material shaping, hardness, fire retardant and other hard physical conditions, add into some filler, thus greatly improving its “better” performance. The most commonly used is “vinyl bis-stearamide”.
Chinese name: vinyl distearamide
English Name: N,N-Ethylene Bis-stearamide
Alias: Ethylene Bis-stearamide; N,N’-Ethylene Bis-stearamide, N,N-Ethylene Bis-stearamide
Chemical formula: C38H76N2O2
Melting point: 141~146

It is widely used in the molding process of PVC products, ABS, high impact polystyrene, polyolefin, rubber and plastic products, which has not only good external lubrication but also good internal lubrication compared with traditional lubricants such as paraffin wax, polyethylene wax and stearate, making vinyl products It improves the fluidity and demoulding of molten plastic in the molding process, thus improving the output of vinyl product processing, reducing energy consumption, and achieving high surface finish and smoothness of the product. The product contains two amide groups -C-NH- in its molecular structure, which makes the vinyl products have better antistatic properties after being added to the vinyl products, so that the vinyl products are not easy to be “dusty” and dirty. This valuable property is especially important for vinyl products used in appliances and instrument housings and many other vinyl products, and as a lubricant, the product has a very significant synergistic effect when used with other lubricants.

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